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Finally, Hellenization is used with reference to Judea, Persia, etc. Erudition developed for its own sake and, notably in Alexandria and Pergamum, was under royal protection.to indicate the penetration of elements of Greek civilization into territories which, though subject to Greco-Macedonian rule for a certain period of time, preserved their national culture with conspicuous success. Droysen stretched the meaning of the word to signify the period of transition from the pagan to the Christian world which started with Alexander. The libraries of Alexandria were centers of research, besides containing extraordinary collections of manuscripts (apparently not confined to texts in Greek).

The empire of Alexander the Great was the result of the military and intellectual cooperation of Greeks and Macedonians, who constituted the ruling class in the states emerging from the struggles of Alexander's successors.

However, a progressive transformation of the old city cults was noticeable, with a new emphasis on free associations of devotees of a specific god, on mysteries, on spiritual notions such as philanthropy and purification. At the same time Oriental gods – either with their original names (Osiris, Isis) or by identification with Greek gods (Hermes – Thot; Jupiter – Dolichenus) – were widely worshiped outside their original countries, with appropriate modifications of their cults.

A curious case of a new god with old Egyptian roots was Serapis.

There are signs that much of the literature now lost was fairly popular in character.

Figurative art certainly had a wide appeal, as can be deduced from the amount of cheap, but graceful, figurines of this period.

The works of the great historians of the Hellenistic age (Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris, Timaeus, Agatharchidas, Phylarchus, and Posidonius) are all lost, with the exception of Polybius, and only fragments of his work remain.

Research on Hellenism has been helped by archaeological discoveries, new inscriptions, and the constitution of a new branch of research, papyrology, since the beginning of the 20 However, a knowledge of the political history of Hellenism is hampered by the fragmentary nature of the surviving sources. Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Pausanias, Galen, Athenaeus, and Diogenes Laertius, though all writing in the Roman Empire, provide essential information on Hellenistic science, social life, and customs. The study of Greek influence on Judaism has developed into a special branch of research on which E. The only continuous account of the Hellenistic age is found in the short summary of the Historiae Philippicae by Pompeius Trogus (end of the first century of Maccabees are invaluable for Jewish history and must be supplemented by the relevant sections of Josephus' Jewish Antiquities.Since Droysen, many historians have reexamined the political and constitutional history of this period; they include B. There was also a revival (perhaps a transformation) of Pythagorean groups, which began to look like a religious sect. The foundation of new cities (especially in the Seleucid kingdom) and of new villages (particularly in Egypt) contributed to the spread of Greek, but the peasants and the native priests kept the indigenous languages alive.The second edition, both in the German text and in the French translation by A. They are, however, not so important as the essential unity of Hellenistic culture.